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Cryo-EM reveals critical protein-modifying complex and potential drug target - Scientists have revealed the atomic-level structure of a molecular complex responsible for modifying proteins, possibly paving the way for the development of new medications for cancer and a host of other diseases. ...
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Your brain responses to music reveal if you're a musician or not - How your brain responds to music listening can reveal whether you have received musical training, according to new research. By applying methods of computational music analysis and machine learning on brain imaging data collected during music listening, the researchers we able to predict with a significant accuracy whether the listeners were musicians or not. ...
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Two-dimensional circuit with magnetic quasi-particles - Whether smart phone, computer or dialysis machine -- there is no electronic device without chips and their electronic components inside. The individual circuit elements are therefore often wired using three dimensional so called bridge constructions. Physicists are now working on a more efficient variation, where specific quasiparticles named magnons instead of electrons are being used. They have shown for the first time, in an initial model, that magnon current flow is possible in an integrated magnon circuit, in which case the components are only being connected two dimensionally. ...
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A new assessment method for active aging - Researchers have developed a new indicator for assessing active aging. Active aging refers to having initiative and doing things the aging person considers important. The indicator consists of a series of questions, which can be presented either in an interview or as a questionnaire. A score describing active ageing is calculated based on the responses.  ...
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GoJelly project officially kicks off - While the number of fish in our oceans continues to decrease, changing environmental conditions seem to favour jellyfish. They occur more often in large blooms. So far, they are considered annoying, if not dangerous. The project GoJelly aims to change that perception and to investigate the suitability of the organisms as microplastic filters, fertilizers or fish feed. ...
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Global temperature targets will be missed within decades unless carbon emissions reversed - New projections by researchers could be the catalyst the world has sought to determine how best to meet its obligations to reduce carbon emissions and better manage global warming as defined by the Paris Agreement. ...
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Optical nanoscope allows imaging of quantum dots - Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. In particular, the new method allows the imaging of quantum dots in a semiconductor chip. ...
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A 'hot Jupiter' with unusual winds - The hottest point on a gaseous planet near a distant star isn't where astrophysicists expected it to be -- a discovery that challenges scientists' understanding of the many planets of this type found in solar systems outside our own. ...
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Boosting cancer therapy with artificial molecules - Researchers have created artificial molecules that can help the immune system to recognize and attack cancer tumors. ...
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Scientists discover material ideal for smart photovoltaic windows - Researchers have discovered that a form of perovskite, one of the hottest materials in solar research currently due to its high conversion efficiency, works surprisingly well as a stable and photoactive semiconductor material that can be reversibly switched between a transparent state and a non-transparent state, without degrading its electronic properties. ...
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User experiment at BESSY II: Complex tessellations, extraordinary materials - Researchers have discovered a reaction path that produces exotic layers with semiregular structures. These kinds of materials are interesting because they frequently possess extraordinary properties. In the process, simple organic molecules are converted to larger units which form the complex, semiregular patterns. ...
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A race against pine: Wood-boring wasp in North America threatened by a Eurasian invader - Invasive species have diverse impacts in different locations, including biodiversity loss, as a result of native species being outcompeted for similar resources. A US research team studied the case of an aggressive Eurasian woodwasp that has recently established in North America and poses a threat to a native competitor species. ...
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Using social and risk networks helps identify people undiagnosed with HIV - Conducting HIV testing among the social and risk networks of those recently diagnosed with HIV helps identify undiagnosed cases of HIV at significantly higher rates and at a lower cost than other testing approaches, finds a new study conducted in Ukraine by an international research team. ...
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Research helps break ground to clean up land - Researchers have been exploring the intricate shapes that emerge when air is injected into soil. These findings could one day be used to speed up the decontamination of industrial brownfield sites. ...
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Improving vaccines for the elderly by blocking inflammation - By identifying why skin immunity declines in old age, a research team has found that an anti-inflammatory pill could help make vaccines more effective for elderly people. The study found that an excessive inflammation reaction in older people can obstruct the immune system. ...
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Heat loss from the Earth triggers ice sheet slide towards the sea - In North-East Greenland, researchers have measured the loss of heat that comes up from the interior of the Earth. This enormous area is a geothermal 'hot spot' that melts the ice sheet from below and triggers the sliding of glaciers towards the sea. ...
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Finding unravels nature of cognitive inflexibility in Fragile X syndrome - Mice with the genetic defect that causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS) learn and remember normally, but show an inability to learn new information that contradicts what they initially learned, shows a new study by a team of neuroscientists. ...
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New fuel cell technology runs on solid carbon - Advancements in a fuel cell technology powered by solid carbon could make electricity generation from coal and biomass cleaner and more efficient, according to a new article. Innovations in the anode, the electrolyte and the fuel allow the fuel cell to utilize more carbon, operate at lower temperatures and show higher maximum power densities than earlier direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs). ...
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New insights into how your brain keeps its balance - An interdisciplinary team of scientists has discovered that two large protein kinases, ATM and ATR, cooperate to help establish the go/stop balance in human brains. ...
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'Depression education' effective for some teens - In an assessment of their 'depression literacy' program, which has already been taught to tens of thousands, researchers say the Adolescent Depression Awareness Program achieved its intended effect of encouraging many teenagers to speak up and seek adult help for themselves or a peer. ...
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New metal-semiconductor interface for brain-inspired computing - One of the big challenges in computer architecture is integrating storage, memory and processing in one unit. This would make computers faster and more energy efficient. Physicists have taken a big step towards this goal by combining a niobium doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) semiconductor with ferromagnetic cobalt. At the interface, this creates a spin-memristor with storage abilities, paving the way for neuromorphic computing architectures. ...
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Making fuel cells for a fraction of the cost - Researchers now describe the development of an inexpensive, efficient catalyst material for a type of fuel cell called a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, which turns the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity and is among the most promising fuel cell types to power cars and electronics. ...
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Sea turtle crisis: Moisture, not just heat impacts sex of sea turtle hatchlings - Male sea turtles are disappearing and not just in Australia. Researchers found that 97 to 100 percent of hatchlings in southeast Florida have been female since 2002. They are the first to show why and how moisture conditions inside the nest in addition to heat affect the development and sex ratios of turtle embryos, using a novel technique they developed to estimate sex ratios with a male-specific, transcriptional molecular marker Sox9. ...
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Virus shown to be likely cause of mystery polio-like illness - A major review has identified strong evidence that a virus called Enterovirus D68 is the cause of a mystery polio-like illness that has paralyzed children in the US, Canada and Europe. ...
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Alcohol consumption in late teens can lead to liver problems in adulthood - Alcohol is the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and liver-related deaths. Results of a large long-term study in Sweden have confirmed that drinking during late adolescence could be the first step towards liver problems in adulthood and that guidelines for safe alcohol intake in men might have to be revised downwards. ...
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Study of learning and memory problems in OCD helps young people unlock potential at school - Adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have widespread learning and memory problems, according to new research. The findings have already been used to assist adolescents with OCD obtain the help they needed at school to realize their potential -- including helping one individual go on to university. ...
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Epilepsy linked to brain volume and thickness differences - Epilepsy is associated with thickness and volume differences in the grey matter of several brain regions, according to new research. The largest-ever neuroimaging study of people with epilepsy, shows that epilepsy involves more widespread physical differences than previously assumed, even in types of epilepsy that are typically considered to be more benign if seizures are under control. ...
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The world's most powerful acoustic tractor beam could pave the way for levitating humans - Acoustic tractor beams use the power of sound to hold particles in mid-air, and unlike magnetic levitation, they can grab most solids or liquids even small insects. For the first time engineers have shown it is possible to stably trap objects larger than the wavelength of sound in an acoustic tractor beam. This discovery could enable the manipulation of drug capsules or micro-surgical implements within the body. The discovery could even lead to levitating humans. ...
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Bio-renewable process could help ?green? plastic - Plastics are often derived from petroleum, contributing to reliance on fossil fuels and driving harmful greenhouse gas emissions. To change that, scientists are trying to take the pliable nature of plastic in another direction, developing new and renewable ways of creating plastics from biomass. ...
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A nanophenomenon that triggers the bone-repair process - Researchers have resolved one of the great unknowns in bone self-repair: how the cells responsible for forming new bone tissue are called into action. Their work reveals the role of an electromechanical phenomenon at the nanoscale, flexoelectricity, as a possible mechanism for stimulating the cell response and guiding it throughout the fracture repair process. ...
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Virtual reality goes magnetic - The success of Pokémon GO made many people familiar with the concept of 'augmented reality': computer-generated perception blends into the real and virtual worlds. So far, these apps largely used optical methods for motion detection. Physicists have now developed an ultrathin electronic magnetic sensor that can be worn on skin. Just by interacting with magnetic fields, the device enables a touchless manipulation of virtual and physical objects. ...
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Breakthrough study shows how plants sense the world - Plants lack eyes and ears, but they can still see, hear, smell and respond to environmental cues and dangers. They do this with the aid of hundreds of membrane proteins that sense microbes or other stresses. Researchers now have created the first network map for 200 of these proteins. The map shows how a few key proteins act as master nodes critical for network integrity, and the map also reveals unknown interactions. ...
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Cells lacking nuclei struggle to move in 3-D environments - A study examined the role of the physical structure of the nucleus in cell movement through different surfaces. ...
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Infant mortality rates in Texas vary dramatically from one zip code to the next - Infant mortality rates in Texas vary dramatically even across neighboring zip codes, according to a new analysis and mapping tool. The analysis and searchable map, which are the first of their kind in Texas, use data from Texas Vital Statistics Linked Birth and Death Records from 2011-2014. ...
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'Programmable droplets' could enable high-volume biology experiments - Researchers have developed hardware that uses electric fields to move droplets of chemical or biological solutions around a surface, mixing them in ways that could be used to test thousands of reactions in parallel. ...
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Cystic fibrosis bacterial burden begins during first years of life - Cystic fibrosis shortens life by making the lungs prone to repeated bacterial infections and inflammation. Researchers have now shown for the first time that the lungs' bacterial population changes in the first few years of life as respiratory infections and inflammation set in. This research offers a way to predict the onset of lung disease in children with CF and suggests a larger role for preventive therapies, such as hypertonic saline. ...
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Creation of synthetic horsepox virus could lead to more effective smallpox vaccine - Researchers created a new synthetic virus that could lead to the development of a more effective vaccine against smallpox. The discovery demonstrates how techniques based on the use of synthetic DNA can be used to advance public health measures. ...
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Thanks for the memory: Taking a deep look at memristors - Scientists have now unveiled the long-mysterious inner workings of these semiconductor elements, which can act like the short-term memory of nerve cells. ...
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'Explosive evolution' of techniques to restore blood flow to the brain - Recent decades have seen an 'explosive evolution' of techniques to restore blood flow to areas of the brain endangered by stroke or clogged arteries, according to a new report. ...
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Radioactivity from oil and gas wastewater persists in Pennsylvania stream sediments - More than seven years after Pennsylvania officials requested that the disposal of radium-laden fracking wastewater into surface waters be restricted, a new study finds that high levels of radioactivity persist in stream sediments at three disposal sites. Radioactivity at these sites is 650 times higher than at unaffected sites upstream. The contamination comes from conventional, or non-fracked, oil and gas wastewater, which, under current state regulations, can still be treated and discharged into streams. ...
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Researchers illustrate how muscle growth inhibitor is activated, could aid in treating ALS - Researchers have identified how the inactive or latent form of GDF8, a signaling protein also known as myostatin responsible for limiting muscle, is activated. ...
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Piecework at the nano assembly line - Scientists have developed a novel electric propulsion technology for nanorobots. It allows molecular machines to move a hundred thousand times faster than with the biochemical processes used to date. This makes nanobots fast enough to do assembly line work in molecular factories. ...
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City lights setting traps for migrating birds - A new study has examined how light pollution lures birds into urban areas during fall migration, a trend that poses risk for the fowl that often fly into buildings and has increased with the addition of brighter LED lights. The researchers were interested in seeing what factors shape the birds' distributions and why they occur in certain areas. ...
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Can being too social take years off your life? - Large ground squirrels called yellow-bellied marmots live much longer, on average, if they are less social and more isolated than if they are more social and less isolated, a long-term study has found. ...
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Let's make a deal: Could AI compromise better than humans? - Researchers developed an algorithm that teaches machines not just to win games, but to cooperate and compromise -- and sometimes do a little trash-talking too. ...
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How metal scaffolds enhance the bone healing process - Scientists have shown how mechanically optimized constructs known as titanium-mesh scaffolds help optimize bone regeneration. ...
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Climate change linked to more flowery forests - New research has revealed a surprising relationship between surging atmospheric carbon dioxide and flower blooms in a remote tropical forest. ...
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Hedgehog signaling proteins keep cancer stem cells alive - Scientists have discovered that the survival of cancer stem cells is dependent on the 'Hedgehog signaling pathway'. Targeting this pathway had previously shown no effect on the growth of colorectal cancer. Now, scientists have demonstrated that using different drugs to target a specific aspect of the pathway may yield better treatment outcomes for patients. ...
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The Pentagon built with mineralized microbes predating dinosaurs - A new study has found that some of the building blocks of the Pentagon and Empire State Building were made by microbes that lived up to 340 million years ago, predating the dinosaurs. ...
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Factor that doubles the risk of death from breast cancer identified - Researchers have discovered that the risk of death from breast cancer is twice as high for patients with high heterogeneity of the estrogen receptor within the same tumor as compared to patients with low heterogeneity. The study shows that the higher risk of death is independent of other known tumor markers and also holds true for Luminal A breast cancer. ...
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Increasing number of adolescents receive a psychiatric or neurodevelopmental diagnosis - According to a national register study comparing Finnish birth cohorts from 1987 and 1997, an increasing number of adolescents receive a psychiatric or neurodevelopmental diagnosis. The number of diagnosed adolescents increased especially for girls in the younger cohort. ...
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Free online access to millions of documents on chemical toxicity made possible through ToxicDocs - Millions of pages of internal corporate and trade association documents relating to the introduction of new products and chemicals into the workplace and commerce have been compiled into a free searchable online database called ToxicDocs. ...
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A survival lesson from bats: Eating variety keeps species multiplying - A new study reveals that omnivorous New World noctilionoid bats, those species with diets including both plant and animal materials, produce more new species in the long run than specialized vegetarian or insectivorous species. ...
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The human body's golden gate to iron traffic - New findings could change how iron metabolism in the human body is understood, and open new horizons for research and therapeutics for inflammatory diseases and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer?s and Parkinson's disease. ...
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Caffeine?s sport performance advantage for infrequent tea and coffee drinkers - Sports scientists have found that the performance enhancing benefits of caffeine are more apparent in athletes who do not drink caffeine-rich drinks such as tea, coffee, and energy drinks on a daily basis. ...
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Adhesives developed to prevent bracket stains on teeth - Researchers have performed research to develop adhesive materials that will prevent white stains from appearing on the teeth of people who use brackets. ...
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How plants see light - The proteins PCH1 and PCHL help plants adapt to their surroundings. Plants react sensitively to changes in their surroundings and possess the ability to adapt to them. They use the photoreceptor protein phytochrome B to see light and then regulate processes such as seed germination, seedling development, longitudinal growth and flower formation. ...
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Promising malaria medication tested - An international research team has conducted successful phase II clinical tests of a new anti-malaria medication. The treatment led to a cure in 83 cases. ...
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Successful promotion of giftedness as early as elementary school age - Experts have argued that the specific needs of gifted children are often neglected, resulting in a shriveling of their abilities and potential. Consequently, they call for the implementation of programs that specifically aim to promote gifted children. ...
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Hunting dogs as possible vectors for the infectious disease tularaemia - Tularaemia is an infectious bacterial disease that is life-threatening for rodents, rabbits and hares, but which can also infect humans and dogs. While contact with contaminated blood or meat makes hunters a high-risk group, the frequency of infections among hunting dogs has not been much studied. Researchers have now confirmed a relevant prevalence of infections in Austrian hunting dogs following a serological study in which seven percent of the animals tested positive. This could lead to more intense debate as to whether the often asymptomatic animals represent an additional risk of infection for people. ...
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